منتديات ابناء تعوينين للهندسة والصيانة الشاملة
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منتديات ابناء تعوينين للهندسة والصيانة الشاملة

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 أشهر المخترعين وإختراعاتهم

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مُساهمةموضوع: أشهر المخترعين وإختراعاتهم    الإثنين سبتمبر 05, 2011 10:41 pm

قائمة بأسماء أشهر المخترعين وإختراعاتهم
1. A
2. Bruno Abakanowicz, (1852–1900), Poland/Lithuania/Russia/France — Integraph, spirograph
3. Vitaly Abalakov, (1906–1986), Russia — camming devices, Abalakov thread (or V-thread) gearless ice climbing anchor
4. Hovannes Adamian, (1879–1932), Armenia/Russia — tricolor principle of the color television
5. Robert Adler, (1913–2007), Austria/United States — wireless remote control
6. Turhan Alçelik (c. 2006), Turkey — non-glaring headlamp
7.
Anatoly Alexandrov, (1903–1994), Russia — anti-mine demagnetising of
ships, naval nuclear reactors (including one for the first nuclear
icebreaker)
8. Alexandre Alexeieff, (1901–1982) Russia/France — pinscreen animation (with his wife Claire Parker)
9. Rostislav Alexeyev, (1916–1980), Russia — ekranoplan
10. Zhores Alferov, (1930), Russia - heterotransistor, continuous-wave-operating diode laser (together with Dmitri Garbuzov)
11. Genrich Altshuller, (1926–1998), Russia — TRIZ ("The Theory of Solving Inventor's Problems")
12. Mary Anderson, (1866–1953), United States — windshield wiper blade
13. Vasily Andreyev, (1861–1918), Russia — standard balalaika
14.
Oleg Antonov, (1906–1984), Russia — An-series aircraft, including A-40
winged tank and An-124 (the largest serial cargo, later modified to
world's largest fixed-wing aircraft An-225)
15. Nicolas Appert, (1749–1841), France — canning (airtight food preservation)
16. Archimedes, (c. 287–212 BC), Greece — Archimedes' screw
17. Ami Argand, (1750–1803), France — Argand lamp
18. Edwin H. Armstrong,(1890–1954), U.S. — FM radio
19. William George Armstrong, (1810–1900), UK — hydraulic crane
20. Neil Arnott, (1788–1874), UK — waterbed
21. Lev Artsimovich, (1909–1973), Russia — tokamak
22. Al-Ashraf, (fl. 1282–1296), Yemen — dry compass
23. Joseph Aspdin, (1788–1855), England — Portland cement
24. John Vincent Atanasoff, (1903–1995), United States — modern digital computer
25. B
26. Georgy Babakin, (1914–1971), Russia — first soft landing space vehicle (Luna 9)
27. Charles Babbage, (1791–1871), UK — analytical engine (semi-automatic computer)
28. Roger Bacon, (1214–1292), England — magnifying glass
29. Leo Baekeland, (1863–1944), Belgian–American — Velox photographic paper and Bakelite
30. Ralph H. Baer, (1922–), German born American — video game console
31. Abd al-Latif al-Baghdadi, (1162–1231), Iraq/Egypt — ventilator
32. John Logie Baird, (1888–1946), Scotland — an electromechanical television, electronic color television
33.
Ibn al-Baitar, (d. 1248), Islamic Spain — three hundred drugs and
foods, cancer therapy, pharmacotherapy, Hindiba, pharmacopoeia
34. Abi Bakr of Isfahan, (c. 1235), Persia/Iran — mechanical geared astrolabe with lunisolar calendar analog computer
35. Donat Banki, (1859–1922), Hungary — inventor of the carburetor
36. Vladimir Baranov-Rossine, (1888–1944), Ukraine/Russia/France — Optophonic Piano, pointillist or dynamic military camouflage
37. John Bardeen, (1908–1991), U.S. — co-inventor of the transistor
38. Vladimir Barmin, (1909–1993), Russia — first rocket launch complex (spaceport)
39. Anthony R. Barringer, Canada/U.S. — INPUT (Induced Pulse Transient) airborne electromagnetic system
40.
Earl W. Bascom, (1906–1995), Canada/U.S. — side-delivery rodeo chute,
hornless rodeo saddle, rodeo bareback rigging, rodeo chaps
41. Nikolay Basov, (1922–2001), Russia — co-inventor of laser and maser
42. Ibn Bassal, (fl.1038–1075), Islamic Spain — flywheel, flywheel-driven noria, flywheel-driven saqiya chain pump
43. Muhammad ibn Jābir al-Harrānī al-Battānī (Albatenius), (853-929), Syria/Turkey — observation tube
44. Eugen Baumann, (1846–1896), Germany — PVC
45. Trevor Baylis, (1937–), UK — a wind-up radio
46. Francis Beaufort, (1774–1857), France — Beaufort scale
47. Ernest Beaux, (1881–1961), Russia/France — Chanel No. 5
48. Arnold O. Beckman, (1900–2004), U.S. — pH meter
49. Ulugh Beg, 1394–1449, Persia/Iran — Fakhri sextant, mural sextant
50. Vladimir Bekhterev, (1857–1927), Russia — Bekhterev's Mixture
51. Alexander Graham Bell, (1847–1922), Canada, Scotland, and U.S. — telephone
52. Karl Benz, (1844–1929), Germany — the petrol-powered automobile
53. Alexander Bereznyak, (1912–1974), Russia — first rocket-powered fighter aircraft, BI-1 (together with Isaev)
54. Georgy Beriev, (1903–1979), Georgia/Russia — Be-series amphibious aircraft
55. Emile Berliner, (1851–1929), Germany and U.S. — the disc record gramophone
56. Nikolay Benardos, (1842–1905), Russia — arc welding (specifically carbon arc welding, the first arc welding method)
57. Tim Berners-Lee, (1955–), UK — with Robert Cailliau, the World Wide Web
58. Abu Mansoor Nizar al-Aziz Billah, (955–996), Egypt — airmail, homing pigeon
59. Bi Sheng (Chinese 畢昇), (ca. 990–1051), China — clay movable type printing
60. Laszlo Biro, (1899–1985), Hungary — modern ballpoint pen
61. Clarence Birdseye, (1886–1956), U.S. — frozen food process
62.
Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī, (973–1048), Persia/Iran — mechanical geared
lunisolar calendar analog computer, fixed-wired knowledge processing
machine, conical measure, laboratory flask, Orthographical astrolabe,
hodometer, pycnometer
63. J. Stuart Blackton, (1875–1941), U.S. — stop-motion film
64. Otto Blathy (1860–1939), Hungary — co-inventor of the transformer, wattmeter, alternating current (AC) and turbogenerator
65. Fyodor Blinov, (1827–1902), Russia — first tracked vehicle, steam-powered continuous track tractor
66. Katharine B. Blodgett, (1898–1979), UK — nonreflective glass
67. Alan Blumlein, (1903–1942), England — stereo
68. Nils Bohlin, (1920–2002), Sweden — the three-point seat belt
69. Joseph-Armand Bombardier, (1907–1964), Canada — snowmobile
70. Sam Born, Russia/U.S. — lollipop-making machine
71.
Satyendra Nath Bose, (1894-1974, India - work on gas-like properties of
electromagnetic radiation, Boson and providing foundation for
Bose-Einstein statistics and Bose-Einstein Condensate
72. Jagdish Chandra Bose, (1858–1937), India — Crescograph
73. George de Bothezat, (1882–1940), Russia/U.S. — quadrotor helicopter (The Flying Octopus)
74. Robert W. Bower, (1936–), U.S. — self-aligned–gate MOSFET
75. Seth Boyden, (1788–1870), U.S. — nail-making machine
76. Walter Houser Brattain, (1902–1987), U.S. — co-inventor of the transistor
77. Louis Braille, (1809–1852), France — the Braille writing system
78. Karl Ferdinand Braun, (1850–1918), Germany — cathode-ray tube oscilloscope
79. Harry Brearley, (1871–1948), UK — stainless steel
80. Sergey Brin, (1973–), Russia/U.S. — with Larry Page invented Google web search engine
81. Mikhail Britnev, (1822–1889), Russia — first metal-hull icebreaker (Pilot)
82. Rachel Fuller Brown, (1898–1980), U.S., Nystatin, the world's first antifungal antibiotic
83. John Moses Browning, (1855–1926), U.S. — automatic handgun[disambiguation needed]
84. Maria Christina Bruhn, (1732–1802), Sweden
85. Nikolay Brusentsov, (born 1925), Russia — ternary computer (Setun)
86. Edwin Beard Budding, (1795–1846), UK — lawnmower
87. Gersh Budker, (1918–1977), Russia — electron cooling, co-inventor of collider
88. Corliss Orville Burandt, U.S. — Variable valve timing
89.
Henry Burden,(1791-1871) Scotland and U.S.- Horseshoe machine (made 60
horse shoes in a minute), first usable Iron Railed road spike, and
builder of the most powerful waterwheel in history "Niagara of
Water-Wheels"
90. Richard James Burgess, U.K. — Simmons (electronic drum company), co-inventor of SDS5 drum synthesizer
91. Aleksandr Butlerov, (1828–1886), Russia — hexamine, formaldehyde
92. C
93. Robert Cailliau, (1947–), Belgium — with Tim Berners-Lee, the World Wide Web
94. C`ai Lun, 蔡倫 (50–121 AD), China — paper
95. Marvin Camras, (1916–1995), U.S. — magnetic recording
96. Chester Carlson, (1906–1968), U.S. — Xerography
97. Wallace Carothers, (1896–1937), U.S. — Nylon
98. Hezarfen Ahmet Celebi, (fl.1630–1632), Turkey — long-distance flight, artificial wings
99. Lagari Hasan Celebi, (1633), Turkey — first manned rocket flight
100. Joseph Constantine Carpue, (1764–1846), France — rhinoplastic surgery
101. George Cayley, (1773–1857), UK — glider, tension-spoke wheels, Caterpillar track
102. Roxey Ann Caplin, (1793–1888), UK — Corsets
103. Dennis Charter, (1952–), Australia — secure electronic payment system for internet PaySafe
104.
Vladimir Chelomey, (1914–1984), Russia — first space station (Salyut),
Proton rocket (the most used heavy lift launch system)
105. Pavel Cherenkov, (1904–1990), Russia — Cherenkov detector
106. Adrian Chernoff, (1971–), U.S. — GM Autonomy, GM Hy-wire, Rubber Bandits
107. Evgeniy Chertovsky, (1902–), Russia – pressure suit
108. Alexander Chizhevsky, (1897–1964), Russia – air ionizer
109. Andrey Chokhov, (c. 1545–1629), Russia – Tsar Cannon
110. Niels Christensen (1865–1952), U.S. — O-ring
111. Samuel Hunter Christie, (1784–1865), UK — Wheatstone bridge
112. Juan de la Cierva, (1895–1936), Spain — the autogyro
113. Alexandru Ciurcu, (1854–1922), Romania — Reaction engine
114. Georges Claude, (1870–1960), France — neon lamp
115. Henri Coandă, (1886–1972), Romania — Jet engine
116. Josephine Cochrane, (1839–1913), U.S. — dishwasher
117. Christopher Cockerell, (1910–1999), UK — Hovercraft
118. Aeneas Coffey, (1780–1852), Ireland — heat exchanger, Coffey still
119. Sir Henry Cole, (1808–1882), England — Christmas card
120. Samuel Colt, (1814–1862), U.S. — Revolver
121. George Constantinescu, (1881–1965), Romania — Interrupter gear
122. Lloyd Groff Copeman, (1865–1956), U.S. — Electric stove
123. Cornelis Corneliszoon, (1550–1607), The Netherlands — sawmill
124. Jacques Cousteau, (1910–1997), France — co-inventor of the aqualung and the Nikonos underwater camera
125. Thomas Crapper, (1836–1910), England — ballcock (toilet valve)
126. Bartolomeo Cristofori, (1655–1731), Italy — piano
127. János Csonka, (1852–1939), Hungary — co-inventor of carburetor
128. Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot, (1725–1804), France — first steam-powered road vehicle
129. William Cumberland Cruikshank, (1745–1800), UK — chlorinated water
130. William Cullen, (1710–1790), UK — first artificial refrigerator
131. Glenn Curtiss, (1878–1930), U.S. — ailerons
132. D
133. Gustaf Dalén, (1869–1937), Sweden — AGA cooker; Dalén light; Agamassan
134. Salvino D'Armate, (1258–1312), Italy — credited for inventing eyeglasses in 1284
135. Leonardo Davinci,
136. Corradino D'Ascanio, (1891–1981), Italy - D'AT3 helicopter; Vespa scooter
137. Jacob Davis, (1868–1908), U.S. — riveted jeans
138. Edmund Davy, (1785–1857), Ireland — acetylene
139. Humphry Davy, (1778–1829), UK — Davy miners lamp
140. Joseph Day, (1855–1946), UK — the crankcase-compression two-stroke engine
141. Lee DeForest, (1873–1961), U.S. — triode
142.
Vasily Degtyaryov, (1880–1949), Russia — first self-loading carbine,
Degtyaryov-series firearms, co-developer of Fedorov Avtomat
143.
Akinfiy Demidov, (1678–1745), Russia — co-developer of rebar, cast iron
dome, lightning rod (all found in the Leaning Tower of Nevyansk)
144. Yuri Nikolaevich Denisyuk, (1927–2006), Russia — 3D holography
145. Miksa Deri (1854–1938), Hungary — co-inventor of an improved closed-core transformer
146. James Dewar, (1842–1923), UK — Thermos flask
147. Aleksandr Dianin, (1851–1918), Russia - Bisphenol A, Dianin's compound
148. William Kennedy Laurie Dickson, (1860–1935), UK — motion picture camera
149. Philip Diehl, (1847–1913), U.S. — Ceiling fan, electric sewing machine
150. Rudolf Diesel, (1858–1913), Germany — Diesel engine
151. Al-Dinawari, (828-896), Persia/Iran — more than a hundred plant drugs
152. William H. Dobelle, (1943–2004), United States — first functioning artificial eye
153.
Mikhail Dolivo-Dobrovolsky, (1862–1919),Poland/Russia — three-phase
electric power (first 3-phase hydroelectric power plant, 3-phase
electrical generator, 3-phase motor and 3-phase transformer)
154.
Nikolay Dollezhal, (1899–2000),Russia — AM-1 reactor for the 1st nuclear
power plant, other RBMK reactors, VVER pressurized water reactors
155. Bryan Donkin, (1768–1855), UK — print industry composition roller
156. Hub van Doorne, (1900–1979), Netherlands, Variomatic continuously variable transmission
157. Anastase Dragomir, (1896–1966), Romania — Ejection seat
158. Karl Drais, (1785–1851), Germany — dandy horse (Draisine)
159. Cornelius Drebbel, (1572–1633), The Netherlands — first navigable submarine
160. Richard Drew, (1899–1980), U.S. — Masking tape
161. John Boyd Dunlop, (1840–1921) UK — first practical pneumatic tyre
162. Cyril Duquet, (1841–1922) Canada — Telephone handset
163. Alexey Dushkin, (1904–1977), Russia — deep column station
164. James Dyson, (1947– ) UK — Dual Cyclone bagless vacuum cleaner, incorporating the principles of cyclonic separation.
165. E
166. George Eastman, (1854–1932), U.S. — roll film
167. Thomas Edison, (1847–1931), U.S. — phonograph, commercially practical light bulb, stock ticker, ticker-tape machine etc.
168. Willem Einthoven, (1860–1927), The Netherlands — the electrocardiogram
169. Ivan Elmanov, Russia — first monorail (horse-drawn)
170. Rune Elmqvist, (1906–1996), Sweden — implantable pacemaker
171. Douglas Engelbart, (1925–), U.S. — the computer mouse
172. John Ericsson, (1803–1889), Sweden — the two screw-propeller
173. Lars Magnus Ericsson, (1846–1926), Sweden — the handheld micro telephone
174. Ole Evinrude, (1877–1934), Norway — outboard motor
175. F
176. Peter Carl Fabergé, (1846–1920), Russia — Fabergé Eggs
177. Samuel Face, (1923–2001), U.S. — concrete flatness/levelness technology; Lightning Switch
178. Michael Faraday, (1791–1867), England — electric transformer, electric motor
179. Johann Maria Farina, (1685–1766), Germany; Eau de Cologne
180. Philo Farnsworth, (1906–1971), U.S. — electronic television
181. Muhammad al-Fazari, (d. 796/806), Persia/Iran/Iraq — brass astrolabe
182. James Fergason, (1934–), U.S. — improved liquid crystal display
183. Enrico Fermi, (1901–1954), Italy — nuclear reactor
184. Humberto Fernández Morán, (1924–1999), Venezuela — Diamond scalpel, Ultra microtome
185. Reginald Fessenden, (1866–1932), Canada — two-way radio
186. Adolf Gaston Eugen Fick, (1829–1901), Germany — contact lens
187. Fatima al-Fihri, (c. 859), Tunisia/Morocco — university
188.
Abbas Ibn Firnas (Armen Firman), (810-887), Al-Andalus — eye glasses,
artificial wings, watch, fused quartz and silica glass, artificial
thunder and lightning, metronome
189. Artur Fischer, (1919–) Germany — fasteners including fischertechnik.
190. Gerhard Fischer, Germany/U.S. — hand-held metal detector
191. Nicolas Florine, (1891–1972), Georgia/Russia/Belgium — first tandem rotor helicopter to fly freely
192. Robert Fulton, (1765–1815), United States — first commercially successful steamboat, first practical submarine
193. Alexander Fleming, (1881–1955), Scotland — penicillin
194. John Ambrose Fleming, (1848–1945), England — vacuum diode
195. Sandford Fleming, (1827–1915), Canada — Universal Standard Time
196. Tommy Flowers, (1905–1998), England — Colossus an early electronic computer.
197. Jean Bernard Léon Foucault, (1819–1868), France — Foucault pendulum, gyroscope, eddy current
198. Benoît Fourneyron, (1802–1867), France — water turbine
199. John Fowler, (1826–1864), England — steam-driven ploughing engine
200.
Benjamin Franklin, (1706–1790), U.S. — the pointed lightning rod
conductor, bifocal glasses, the Franklin stove, the glass harmonica
201. Augustin-Jean Fresnel, (1788–1827), France — Fresnel lens
202. William Friese-Greene, (1855–1921), England — cinematography
203. Buckminster Fuller, (1895–1983), U.S. — geodesic dome
204. Ivan Fyodorov, (c. 1510–1583), Russia/Poland-Lithuania — invented multibarreled mortar, introduced printing in Russia
205. Svyatoslav Fyodorov, (1927–2000), Russia — radial keratotomy
206.
Vladimir Fyodorov, (1874–1966), Russia — Fedorov Avtomat (first
self-loading battle rifle, arguably the first assault rifle)
207. G
208. Dennis Gabor, (1900–1979), UK — holography
209. Boris Borisovich Galitzine, (1862–1916), Russia — electromagnetic seismograph
210.
Dmitri Garbuzov, (1940–2006), Russia/U.S. - continuous-wave-operating
diode lasers (together with Zhores Alferov), high-power diode lasers
211.
Elmer R. Gates, (1859–1923), USA — foam fire extinguisher, electric
loom mechanisms, magnetic & diamagnetic separators, educational toy
("box & blocks")
212. Richard J. Gatling, (1818–1903), U.S. — wheat drill, first successful machine gun
213. Georgy Gause, (1910–1986), Russia — gramicidin S, neomycin, lincomycin and other antibiotics
214. E. K. Gauzen, Russia — three bolt equipment (early diving costume)
215. Hans Wilhelm Geiger, (1882–1945), Germany — Geiger counter
216. Andrey Geim, (born 1958), Russia/United Kingdom — graphene
217. Nestor Genko, (1839–1904), Russia — Genko's Forest Belt (the first large-scale windbreak system)
218. Henri Giffard, (1825–1882), France — powered airship, injector
219.
Valentyn Glushko, (1908–1989), Russia — hypergolic propellant, electric
propulsion, Soviet rocket engines (including world's most powerful
liquid-fuel rocket engine RD-170)
220. Heinrich Göbel, (1818–1893), Germany — incandescent lamp
221. Leonid Gobyato, (1875–1915), Russia — first modern man-portable mortar
222. Robert Goddard, (1882–1945), U.S. — liquid fuel rocket
223. Igor Gorynin, (1926), Russia - weldable titanium alloys, high strength aluminium alloys, radiation-hardened steels
224. Peter Carl Goldmark, (1906–1977), Hungary — vinyl record (LP), CBS color television
225. Charles Goodyear, (1800–1860), U.S. — vulcanization of rubber
226. Gordon Gould, (1920–2005), U.S. — co-inventor of laser
227. Richard Hall Gower, (1768–1833), England — ship's hull and rigging
228. Boris Grabovsky, (1901–1966), Russia – cathode commutator, an early electronic TV pickup tube
229. Bette Nesmith Graham, (1924–1980), U.S. — Liquid Paper
230. James Henry Greathead, (1844–1896), South Africa — tunnel boring machine, tunnelling shield technique
231. Chester Greenwood, (1858–1937), U.S. — thermal earmuffs
232. James Gregory, (1638–1675), Scotland — Gregorian telescope
233. William Robert Grove, (1811–1896), Wales — fuel cell
234. Otto von Guericke, (1602–1686), Germany — vacuum pump, manometer, dasymeter
235.
Mikhail Gurevich, (1893–1976), Russia - MiG-series fighter aircraft,
including world's most produced jet aircraft MiG-15 and most produced
supersonic aircraft MiG-21 (together with Artem Mikoyan)
236. Hakan Gürsu, (c. 2007), Turkey — Volitan
237. Johann Gutenberg, (c. 1390s–1468), Germany — movable type printing press
238. Samuel Guthrie, (1782–1848), U.S. — discovered chloroform
239. H
240. John Hadley, (1682–1744), England — Octant
241. Waldemar Haffkine, (1860–1930), Russia/Switzerland — first anti-cholera and anti-plague vaccines
242. Tracy Hall, (1919–2008 ), U.S. — synthetic diamond
243. Christopher Hansteen, (1783–1873), Norway — discovery of terrestrial magnetism
244. James Hargreaves, (1720–1778), England — spinning jenny
245. John Harington, (1561–1612), England - the flush toilet
246. John Harrison, (1693–1776), England — marine chronometer
247. Victor Hasselblad, (1906–1978), Sweden — invented the 6 x 6 cm single-lens reflex camera
248. Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen), (965–1039), Iraq — camera obscura, pinhole camera, magnifying glass
249. Robert A. Heinlein, (1907–1988), U.S. — waterbed
250. Jozef Karol Hell, (1713–1789), Slovakia — the water pillar
251. Rudolf Hell, (1901–2002), Germany — the Hellschreiber
252. Joseph Henry, (1797–1878), Scotland/U.S. — electromagnetic relay
253.
Heron, (c. 10-70), Roman Egypt — usually credited with invention of the
aeolipile, although it may have been described a century earlier
254. John Herschel, (1792–1871), England – photographic fixer (hypo), actinometer
255. William Herschel, (1738–1822), England — infrared
256. Heinrich Hertz, (1857–1894), Germany — radio telegraphy, electromagnetic radiation
257. George de Hevesy, (1885–1966), Hungary — radioactive tracer
258. Rowland Hill, (1795–1879), UK — postage stamp
259. Maurice Hilleman (1919–2005) vaccines agains childhood diseases
260. Felix Hoffmann (Bayer), (1868–1949), Germany — Aspirin
261. Herman Hollerith, (1860–1929), U.S. — recording data on a machine readable medium, tabulator, punched cards
262. Nick Holonyak, (1928- ), U.S. — LED (Light Emitting Diode)
263. Robert Hooke, (1635–1703), England — balance wheel, iris diaphragm
264. Erna Schneider Hoover, (1926–), U.S. — computerized telephone switching system
265. Frank Hornby, (1863–1936), England — invented Meccano
266. Coenraad Johannes van Houten, (1801–1887), Netherlands — cocoa powder, cacao butter, chocolate milk
267. Elias Howe, (1819–1867), U.S. — sewing machine
268. Muhammad Husayn, (fl.17th century), Persia/Iran — cartographic Qibla indicator with sundial and compass
269. Christiaan Huygens, (1629–1695), Netherlands — pendulum clock
270. John Wesley Hyatt, (1837–1920), U.S. — celluloid manufacturing.
271. I
272. Sumio Iijima, (1939- ), Japan — Carbon nanotubes
273. Gavriil Ilizarov, (1921–1992), Russia — Ilizarov apparatus, external fixation, distraction osteogenesis
274.
Sergey Ilyushin, (1894–1977), Russia — Il-series aircraft, including
Ilyushin Il-2 bomber (the most produced military aircraft in history)
275. János Irinyi, (1817–1895), Hungary — noiseless match
276. Aleksei Isaev, (1908–1971), Russia — first rocket-powered fighter aircraft, BI-1 (together with Isaev)
277. Ub Iwerks, (1901–1971), U. S. — Multiplane camera for animation
278. J
279. Jabir ibn Aflah (Geber), (c. 1100–1150), Islamic Spain — portable celestial globe
280.
Jābir ibn Hayyān (Geber), (c. 721-815), Persia/Iran — pure
distillation, liquefaction, purification, retort, mineral acids, nitric
and sulfuric acids, hydrochloric acid, aqua regia, alum, alkali, borax,
pure sal ammoniac, lead carbonatic, arsenic, antimony, bismuth, pure
mercury and sulfur, plated mail
281. Moritz von Jacobi, (1801–1874), Germany/Russia - electrotyping, electric boat
282. Karl Jatho, (1873–1933), Germany — aeroplane
283.
Al-Jazari, (1136–1206), Iraq — crank-driven and hydropowered saqiya
chain pump, crank-driven screw and screwpump, elephant clock,
weight-driven clock, weight-driven pump, reciprocating piston suction
pump, geared and hydropowered water supply system, programmable humanoid
robots, robotics, hand washing automata, flush mechanism, lamination,
static balancing, paper model, sand casting, molding sand,
intermittency, linkage
284. Ibn Al-Jazzar (Algizar), (c. 898-980), Tunisia — sexual dysfunction and erectile dysfunction treatment drugs
285. György Jendrassik, (1898–1954), Hungary — turboprop
286. Charles Francis Jenkins, (1867–1934) - television and movie projector (Phantoscope)
287. Carl Edvard Johansson, (1864–1943), Sweden — Gauge blocks
288. Johan Petter Johansson, (1853–1943), Sweden — the pipe wrench and the modern adjustable spanner
289. Nancy Johnson, U.S. — American version of the hand cranked ice cream machine in (1843)
290.
Scott A. Jones, (1960–), U.S. — created one of the most successful
versions of voicemail as well as ChaCha Search, a human-assisted
internet search engine.
291. Whitcomb Judson, (1836–1909), U.S. — zipper
292. K
293. Mikhail Kalashnikov, (1919–), Russia — AK-47 and AK-74 assault rifles (the most produced ever)[1]
294. Dean Kamen, (1951–), U.S. — Invented the Segway HT scooter and the IBOT Mobility Device
295. Heike Kamerlingh Onnes, (1853–1926), Netherlands — liquify helium
296. Nikolay Kamov, (1902–1973), Russia — armored battle autogyro, Ka-series coaxial rotor helicopters
297.
Pyotr Kapitsa, (1894–1984), Russia - first ultrastrong magnetic field
creating techniques, basic low-temperature physics inventions
298. Georgii Karpechenko, (1899–1941), Russia - rabbage (the first ever non-sterile hybrid obtained through the crossbreeding)
299. Jamshīd al-Kāshī, (c. 1380–1429), Persia/Iran — plate of conjunctions, analog planetary computer
300.
Yevgeny Kaspersky, (1965–), Russia — Kaspersky Anti-Virus, Kaspersky
Internet Security, Kaspersky Mobile Security anti-virus products
301.
Adolphe Kégresse, (1879–1943), France/Russia — Kégresse track (first
half-track and first off-road vehicle with continuous track), dual
clutch transmission
302. Mstislav Keldysh, (1911–1978), Latvia/Russia
- co-developer of Sputnik 1 (the first artificial satellite) together
with Korolyov and Tikhonravov
303. John Harvey Kellogg, (1852–1943), cornflake breakfasts
304. John George Kemeny, (1926–1992), Hungary — co-inventor of BASIC
305. Alexander Kemurdzhian, (1921–2003), Russia — first space exploration rover (Lunokhod)
306. Kerim Kerimov, (1917–2003), Azerbaijan and Russia — co-developer of human spaceflight, space dock, space station
307. Charles F. Kettering, (1876–1958), U.S. — invented automobile self-starter ignition, Freon ethyl gasoline and more
308. Kaldi, (fl.9th century), Ethiopia — coffee
309. Fazlur Khan, (1929–1982), Bangladesh — structural systems for high-rise skyscrapers
310. Yulii Khariton, (1904–1996), Russia — chief designer of the Soviet atomic bomb, co-developer of the Tsar Bomb
311. Anatoly Kharlampiev, (1906–1979), Russia — Sambo (martial art)
312. Al-Khazini, (fl.1115–1130), Persia/Iran — hydrostatic balance
313. Konstantin Khrenov, (1894–1984), Russia — underwater welding
314. Abu-Mahmud al-Khujandi, (c. 940–1000), Persia/Iran — astronomical sextant
315.
Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī (Algoritmi), (c. 780-850), Persia/Iran —
modern algebra, mural instrument, horary quadrant, Sine quadrant,
shadow square
316. Erhard Kietz, (1909–1982), Germany & U.S.A. - patented signal improvements for video transmissions Erhard Kietz Patents
317. Jack Kilby, (1923–2005), U.S. — patented the first integrated circuit
318. Al-Kindi (Alkindus), (801–873), Iraq/Yemen — ethanol, pure distilled alcohol, cryptanalysis, frequency analysis
319. Fritz Klatte, (1880–1934), Germany — vinyl chloride, forerunner to polyvinyl chloride
320. Margaret E. Knight, (1838–1914), U.S. — machine that completely constructs box-bottom brown paper bags
321. Ivan Knunyants, (1906–1990), Armenia/Russia — capron, Nylon 6, polyamide-6
322. Robert Koch, (1843–1910), Germany — method for culturing bacteria on solid media
323. Willem Johan Kolff, (1911–2009), Netherlands — artificial kidney hemodialysis machine
324. Rudolf Kompfner, (1909–1977), U.S. — Traveling-wave tube
325.
Konstantin Konstantinov, (1817 or 1819–1871), Russia — device for
measuring flight speed of projectiles, ballistic rocket pendulum, launch
pad, rocket-making machine
326. Sergey Korolyov, (1907–1966),
Ukraine/Russia — first successful intercontinental ballistic missile
(R-7 Semyorka), R-7 rocket family, Sputniks (including the first
Earth-orbiting artificial satellite), Vostok program (including the
first human spaceflight)
327. Nikolai Korotkov, (1874–1920), Russia - auscultatory technique for blood pressure measurement
328. Semen Korsakov, (1787–1853), Russia - punched card for information storage
329. Mikhail Koshkin, (1898–1940), Russia — T-34 medium tank, the best and most produced tank of World War II[2]
330. Ognjeslav Kostović, (1851–1916), Serbia/Russia — arborite (high-strength plywood, an early plastic)
331. Gleb Kotelnikov, (1872–1944), Russia — knapsack parachute, drogue parachute
332. Alexei Krylov, (1863–1945), Russia — gyroscopic damping of ships
333.
Ivan Kulibin, (1735–1818), Russia — egg-shaped clock, candle
searchlight, elevator using screw mechanisms, a self-rolling carriage
featuring a flywheel, brake, gear box, and bearing, an early optical
telegraph
334. Igor Kurchatov, (1903–1960), Russia — first nuclear power plant, first nuclear reactors for submarines and surface ships
335. Raymond Kurzweil, (1948–), Optical character recognition; flatbed scanner
336. Stephanie Kwolek, (1923–), U.S. — Kevlar
337. John Howard Kyan (1774–1850), Ireland — The process of Kyanization used for wood preservation
338. L
339.
Dmitry Lachinov, (1842–1902), Russia — mercury pump, economizer for
electricity consumption, electrical insulation tester, optical
dynamometer, photometer, elecrolyser
340. René Laënnec, (1781–1826), France — stethoscope
341. Lala Balhumal Lahuri, (c. 1842), Mughal India — seamless globe and celestial globe
342. Georges Lakhovsky, (1869–1942), Russia/U.S. — Multiple Wave Oscillator
343. Hedy Lamarr, (1913–2000), Austria and U.S. — Spread spectrum radio
344. Edwin H. Land, (1909–1991), U.S. — Polaroid polarizing filters and the Land Camera
345. Samuel P. Langley, (1834–1906), U.S. — bolometer
346. Irving Langmuir, (1851–1957), U.S. — gas filled incandescent light bulb, hydrogen welding
347. Lewis Latimer, (1848–1928), — Invented the modern day light bulb
348. Gustav de Laval, (1845–1913), Sweden — invented the milk separator and the milking machine
349. Semyon Lavochkin, (1900–1960), Russia — La-series aircraft, first operational surface-to-air missile S-25 Berkut
350. John Bennet Lawes, (1814–1900), England — superphosphate or chemical fertilizer
351. Nikolai Lebedenko, Russia — Tsar Tank, the largest armored vehicle in history
352. Sergei Lebedev, (1874–1934), Russia — commercially viable synthetic rubber
353. Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, (1632–1723), Netherlands — development of the microscope
354. Jean-Joseph Etienne Lenoir, (1822–1900), Belgium — internal combustion engine, motorboat
355.
R. G. LeTourneau, (1888–1969), U.S.- electric wheel, motor scraper,
mobile oil drilling platform, bulldozer, cable control unit for scrapers
356. Willard Frank Libby, (1908–1980), U.S. — radiocarbon dating
357. Justus von Liebig, (1803–1873), Germany — nitrogen-based fertilizer
358. Otto Lilienthal, (1848–1896), Germany — hang glider
359. Frans Wilhelm Lindqvist, (1862–1931), Sweden — Kerosene stove operated by compressed air
360. Hans Lippershey, (1570–1619), Netherlands — telescope
361. Lisitsyn brothers, Ivan Fyodorovich and Nazar Fyodorovich, Russia — samovar (the first documented makers)
362. William Howard Livens, (1889–1964), England — chemical warfare — Livens Projector.
363. Alexander Lodygin, (1847–1923), Russia — electrical filament, incandescent light bulb with tungsten filament
364.
Mikhail Lomonosov, (1711–1765), Russia — night vision telescope,
off-axis reflecting telescope, coaxial rotor, re-invented smalt
365. Yury Lomonosov, (1876–1952), Russia/United Kingdom — first successful mainline diesel locomotive
366. Aleksandr Loran, (1849 – after 1911), Russia — fire fighting foam, foam extinguisher
367. Oleg Losev, (1903–1942), Russia — light-emitting diode, crystadine
368. Archibald Low, (1882–1956), Britain — Pioneer of radio guidance systems
369. Auguste and Louis Lumière, France — Cinématographe
370. Gleb Lozino-Lozinskiy, (1909–2001), Russia — Buran (spacecraft), Spiral project
371. Ignacy Łukasiewicz, (1822–1882), Poland — modern kerosene lamp
372. Giovanni Luppis, (1813–1875), Austrian Empire (ethnical Italian) — self-propelled torpedo
373. Ali Kashmiri ibn Luqman, (fl.1589–1590), Mughal India — seamless globe and celestial globe
374. Arkhip Lyulka, (1908–1984), Russia — first double jet turbofan engine, other Soviet aircraft engines
375. M
376.
Ma Jun, (c. 200–265), China — South Pointing Chariot (see differential
gear), mechanical puppet theater, chain pumps, improved silk looms
377. Aleksandr Makarov, Russia/Germany — Orbitrap mass spectrometer
378. Stepan Makarov, (1849–1904), Russia — Icebreaker Yermak, the first true icebreaker able to ride over and crush pack ice
379. Nestor Makhno, (1888–1934), Ukraine/Russia — tachanka
380. Charles Macintosh, (1766–1843), Scotland — waterproof raincoat, life vest
381. Victor Makeev, (1924–1985), Russia — first submarine-launched ballistic missile
382. Dmitri Dmitrievich Maksutov, (1896–1964), Russia — Maksutov telescope
383. Sergey Malyutin, (1859–1937), Russia — designed the first matryoshka doll (together with Vasily Zvyozdochkin)
384. Al-Ma'mun, (786-833), Iraq — singing bird automata, terrestrial globe
385. Boris Mamyrin, (1919–2007), Russia — reflectron (ion mirror)
386. George William Manby, (1765–1854), England — Fire extinguisher
387. Guglielmo Marconi, (1874–1937), Italy — radio telegraphy
388. John Landis Mason, (1826–1902), U.S. — Mason jars
389. Henry Maudslay, (1771–1831), England — screw-cutting lathe, bench micrometer
390. Hiram Maxim, (1840–1916), USA born, England — First self-powered machine gun
391. James Clerk Maxwell (1831–1879) and Thomas Sutton Scotland — color photography
392. Ammar ibn Ali al-Mawsili, (9th century), Iraq — syringe, hypodermic needle, cataract extraction, injection, suction
393. John McAdam, (1756–1836), Scotland — improved "macadam" road surface
394. Elijah McCoy, (1843–1929), Canada — Displacement lubricator
395. Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov, (1845–1916), Russia — probiotics
396. Hippolyte Mège-Mouriés, (1817–1880), France — margarine
397.
Dmitri Mendeleev, (1834–1907), Russia — Periodic table, pycnometer,
pyrocollodion, also credited with determining the ideal vodka proof as
38% (later rounded to 40%)
398. Antonio Meucci, (1808–1889), Italy — telephone (prototype)
399. Édouard Michelin, (1859–1940), France — pneumatic tire
400. Anthony Michell, (1870–1959), Australia — tilting pad thrust bearing, crankless engine
401.
Artem Mikoyan, (1905—1970), Armenia/Russia — MiG-series fighter
aircraft, including world's most produced jet aircraft MiG-15 and most
produced supersonic aircraft MiG-21 (together with Mikhail Gurevich)
402. Alexander Mikulin, (1895–1985), Russia — Mikulin AM-34 and other Soviet aircraft engines, co-developer of the Tsar Tank
403.
Mikhail Mil, (1909—1970), Russia — Mi-series helicopter aircraft,
including Mil Mi-8 (the world's most-produced helicopter) and Mil Mi-12
(the world's largest helicopter)
404. Pavel Molchanov, (1893–1941), Russia — radiosonde
405. Jules Montenier, (c. 1910), U.S. — modern anti-perspirant deodorant
406. Montgolfier brothers, (1740–1810) and (1745–1799), France — hot-air balloon
407. John J. Montgomery, (1858–1911), U.S. — heavier-than-air gliders
408. Narcis Monturiol i Estarriol, (1819–1885), Spain — steam powered submarine
409. Robert Moog, (1934–2005), U.S. — the Moog synthesizer
410. Samuel Morey, (1762–1843), U.S. — internal combustion engine
411. Garrett A. Morgan, (1877–1963), U.S. — inventor of the gas mask, and traffic signal.
412. Samuel Morse, (1791–1872), U.S. — telegraph
413. Alexander Morozov, (1904–1979), Russia — T-54/55 (the most produced tank in history), co-developer of T-34
414. Sergei Ivanovich Mosin, (1849–1902), Russia — Mosin–Nagant rifle
415. Motorins, Ivan Feodorovich (1660s – 1735) and his son Mikhail Ivanovich (?–1750), Russia — Tsar Bell
416. Vera Mukhina, (1889–1953), Russia — welded sculpture
417. Al-Muqaddasi, (c. 946–1000), Palestine — restaurant
418. Ibn Khalaf al-Muradi, (fl.11th century), Islamic Spain — geared mechanical clock, segmental gear, epicyclic gearing
419. William Murdoch, (1754–1839), Scotland — Gas lighting
420. Jozef Murgas, (1864–1929), Slovakia — inventor of the wireless telegraph (forerunner of the radio)
421. Evgeny Murzin, (1914–1970), Russia — ANS synthesizer
422.
Banū Mūsā brothers, Muhammad (c. 800-873), Ahmad (803-873), Al-Hasan
(810-873), Iraq — mechanical trick devices, hurricane lamp,
self-trimming and self-feeding lamp, gas mask, clamshell grab, fail-safe
system, mechanical musical instrument, automatic flute player,
programmable machine
423. Pieter van Musschenbroek, (1692–1761), Netherlands — Leyden jar, pyrometer
424. Eadweard Muybridge, (1830–1904), England — motion picture
425. N
426.
Alexander Nadiradze, (1914–1987), Georgia/Russia — first mobile ICBM
(RT-21 Temp 2S), first reliable mobile ICBM (RT-2PM Topol)
427. John Napier, (1550–1617), Scotland — logarithms
428. James Naismith, (1861–1939), Canadian born, USA — invented basketball and American football helmet
429.
Yoshiro Nakamatsu, (b. 1928), Japan — floppy disk, "PyonPyon" spring
shoes, digital watch, CinemaScope, armchair "Cerebrex", sauce pump,
taxicab meter
430. Andrey Nartov, (1683–1756), Russia — first lathe
with a mechanic cutting tool-supporting carriage and a set of gears,
fast-fire battery on a rotating disc, screw mechanism for changing the
artillery fire angle, gauge-boring lathe for cannon-making, early
telescopic sight
431. James Nasmyth, (1808–1890), Scotland — steam hammer
432. Nebuchadrezzar II, (c. 630–562 BC), Iraq (Mesopotamia) — screw, screwpump
433.
Sergey Nepobedimiy, (1921–), Russia — first supersonic anti-tank guided
missile Sturm[disambiguation needed], other Soviet rocket weaponry
434. John von Neumann, (1903–1957), Hungary — Von Neumann computer architecture
435. Isaac Newton,(1642–1727), England — reflecting telescope (which reduces chromatic aberration)
436. Joseph Nicephore Niépce, (1765–1833), France — photography
437.
Nikolai Nikitin, (1907–1973), Russia — prestressed concrete with wire
ropes structure (Ostankino Tower), Nikitin-Travush 4000 project
(precursor to X-Seed 4000)
438. Paul Gottlieb Nipkow, (1860–1940), Germany - Nipkow disk
439.
Jun-Ichi Nishizawa, (1926–), Japan — Optical communication system,
SIT/SITh (Static Induction Transistor/Thyristor), Laser diode, PIN diode
440. Alfred Nobel, (1833–1896), Sweden — dynamite
441. Ludvig Nobel, (1831–1888), Sweden/Russia — first successful oil tanker
442. Carl Rickard Nyberg, (1858–1939), Sweden — the blowtorch
443. O
444. Theophil Wilgodt Odhner, (1845–1903), Sweden/Russia — the Odhner Arithmometer, a mechanical calculator
445. Lucien Olivier, (1838–1883), Belgium or France / Russia — Russian salad (Olivier salad)
446. J. Robert Oppenheimer, (1904–1967), United States — Atomic bomb
447. Edward Otho Cresap Ord, II, (1858–1923) American - weapon sights & mining
448. Hans Christian Ørsted, (1777–1851), Denmark — electromagnetism, aluminium
449. Elisha Otis, (1811–1861), U.S. — passenger elevator with safety device
450. William Oughtred, (1575–1660), England — slide rule
451. P
452. Larry Page, (1973–), U.S. — with Sergey Brin invented Google web search engine
453. Alexey Pajitnov, (born 1956), Russia/U.S. — Tetris
454. Helge Palmcrantz, (1842–1880), Sweden — the multi-barrel, lever-actuated, machine gun
455. Daniel David Palmer, (1845–1913), Canada — chiropractic
456. Luigi Palmieri, (1807–1896), Italy — seismometer
457. Alexander Parkes, (1831–1890), England — celluloid
458. Charles Algernon Parsons, (1854–1931), British — steam turbine
459. Spede Pasanen, (1930–2001), Finland — ski jumping sling
460. Blaise Pascal, (1623–1662), France — Pascal's calculator
461. Gustaf Erik Pasch, (1788–1862), Sweden — safety match
462. Les Paul, (1915–2009), U.S. — multitrack recording
463. Nicolae Paulescu, (1869–1931), Romania — insulin
464. Ivan Pavlov, (1849–1936), Russia, — classical conditioning
465. Arthur Paul Pedrick, England — chromatically selective cat flap and others
466. John Pemberton, (1831–1888), U.S. — Coca-Cola
467. Slavoljub Eduard Penkala, (1871–1922), Croatia — mechanical pencil
468. Henry Perky, (1843–1906), U.S. — shredded wheat
469. Stephen Perry, England — rubber band
470. Vladimir Petlyakov, (1891–1942), Russia — heavy bomber
471. Peter Petroff, (1919–2004), Bulgaria — digital wrist watch, heart monitor, weather instruments
472. Fritz Pfleumer, (1881–1945), Germany — magnetic tape
473.
Nikolay Ivanovich Pirogov, (1810–1881), Russia — early use of ether as
anaesthetic, first anaesthesia in a field operation, various kinds of
surgical operations
474. Fyodor Pirotsky, (1845–1898), Russia — electric tram
475. Arthur Pitney, (1871–1933), United States — postage meter
476. Joseph Plateau, (1801–1883), Belgium — phenakistiscope (stroboscope)
477. Baltzar von Platen, (1898–1984), Sweden — gas absorption refrigerator
478. James Leonard Plimpton, U.S. — roller skates
479. Ivan Plotnikov, (1902–1995), Russia — kirza leather
480. Petrache Poenaru, (1799–1875), Romania — fountain pen
481. Christopher Polhem, (1661–1751), Sweden — the modern padlock
482.
Nikolai Polikarpov, (1892–1944), Russia — Po-series aircraft, including
Polikarpov Po-2 Kukuruznik[disambiguation needed] (world's most
produced biplane)
483. Ivan Polzunov, (1728–1766), Russia — first two-cylinder steam engine
484. Mikhail Pomortsev, (1851–1916), Russia — nephoscope
485. Olivia Poole, (1889–1975), U.S., — the Jolly Jumper baby harness
486.
Alexander Popov, (1859–1906), Russia — lightning detector (the first
lightning prediction system and radio receiver), co-inventor of radio
487. Nikolay Popov, (1931–2008), Russia — first fully gas turbine main battle tank (T-80)
488.
Aleksandr Porokhovschikov, (1892–1941), Russia — Vezdekhod (the first
prototype tank, or tankette, and the first caterpillar amphibious ATV)
489. Joseph Priestley, (1733–1804), England — soda water
490.
Alexander Procofieff de Seversky, 1894–1974, Russia/United States of
America — first gyroscopically stabilized bombsight, ionocraft, also
developed air-to-air refueling
491. Alexander Prokhorov, (1916–2002), Russia — co-inventor of laser and maser
492. Petro Prokopovych, (1775–1850), Ukraine/Russia — early beehive frame, queen excluder and other beekeeping novelties
493.
Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky, (1863–1944), Russia/France - early colour
photography method based on three colour channels, also colour film
slides and colour motion pictures
494. George Pullman, (1831–1897), U.S. — Pullman sleep wagon
495. Michael I. Pupin, (1858–1935), Serbia — pupinization (loading coils), tunable oscillator
496. Tivadar Puskas, (1844–1893), Hungary — telephone exchange
497. R
498. Mario Rabinowitz, (1936–), U.S. — solar concentrator with tracking micromirrors
499. Hasan al-Rammah, (fl.1270s), Syria — purified potassium nitrate, explosive gunpowder, torpedo
500. Harun al-Rashid, (763-809), Persia/Iran — public hospital, medical school
501.
Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi (Rhazes), (865–965), Persia/Iran —
distillation and extraction methods, sulfuric acid and hydrochloric
acid, soap kerosene, kerosene lamp, chemotherapy, sodium hydroxide
502. Karl von Reichenbach, (1788–1869), paraffin, creosote oil, phenol
503. Ira Remsen, (1846–1927), U.S. — saccharin
504. Ralf Reski, (* 1958), Germany — Moss Bioreactor 1998
505. Josef Ressel, (1793–1857), Czechoslovakia — ship propeller
506. Charles Francis Richter, (1900–1985), U.S. — Richter magnitude scale
507. Hyman George Rickover, (1900–1986), U.S. — Nuclear submarine
508. John Roebuck, (1718–1794) England — lead chamber process for sulfuric acid synthesis
509.
Peter I the Great, Tsar and Emperor of Russia, (1672–1725), Russia —
decimal currency, yacht club, sounding line with separating plummet
(sounding weight probe)
510. Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, (1845–1923), Germany — the X-ray machine
511.
Ida Rosenthal, (1886–1973), Belarus/Russia/United States — modern
brassiere (Maidenform), the standard of cup sizes, nursing bra,
full-figured bra, the first seamed uplift bra (all with her husband
William)
512. Boris Rosing, (1869–1933), Russia — CRT television (first TV system using CRT on the receiving side)
513. Eugene Roshal, (born 1972), Russia — FAR file manager, RAR file format, WinRAR file archiver
514. Ernő Rubik, (1944–), Hungary — Rubik's cube, Rubik's Magic and Rubik's Clock
515. Ernst Ruska, (1906–1988), Germany — electron microscope
516. S
517. Alexander Sablukov, (1783–1857), Russia — centrifugal fan
518. Şerafeddin Sabuncuoğlu, (1385–1468), Turkey — illustrated surgical atlas
519.
Andrei Sakharov, (1921–1989), Russia — invented explosively pumped flux
compression generator, co-developed the Tsar Bomb and tokamak
520. Ibn Samh, (c. 1020), Middle East — mechanical geared astrolabe
521. Franz San Galli, (1824–1908), Poland/Russia (Italian and German descent) — radiator, modern central heating
522. Alberto Santos-Dumont, (1873–1932), Brazil — non-rigid airship and airplane
523. Arthur William Savage, (1857–1938) - radial tires, gun magazines, Savage Model 99 lever action rifle
524. Thomas Savery, (1650–1715), England — steam engine
525. Adolphe Sax, (1814–1894), Belgium — saxophone
526. Bela Schick, (1877–1967), Hungary — diphtheria test
527. Pavel Schilling, (1780–1836), Estonia/Russia — first electromagnetic telegraph, mine with an electric fuse
528. Christian Schnabel (1878–1936), German — simplistic food cutleries
529. Kees A. Schouhamer Immink (1946- ), Netherlands — Major contributor to development of Compact Disc
530. August Schrader, U.S. — Schrader valve for Pneumatic tire
531. David Schwarz, (1852–1897), Croatia, — rigid ship, later called Zeppelin
532. Marc Seguin, (1786–1875), France — wire-cable suspension bridge
533. Henry White Seeley, (1832-1903), US-pressing iron
534. Sennacherib, (705–681 BC), Iraq (Mesopotamia) — screw pump
535. Iwan Serrurier, (active 1920s), Netherlands/U.S. — inventor of the Moviola for film editing
536. Mark Serrurier, (190?–1988), U.S. — Serrurier truss for Optical telescopes
537. Gerhard Sessler, (1931–), Germany — foil electret microphone, silicon microphone
538. Guy Severin, (1926–2008), Russia — extra-vehicular activity supporting system
539.
Leonty Shamshurenkov, (1687–1758), Russia — first self-propelling
carriage (a precursor to both bicycle and automobile), projects of an
original odometer and self-propelling sledge
540. Ibn al-Shatir, (1304–1375), Syria — "jewel box" device which combined a compass with a universal sundial
541. Shen Kuo, (1031–1095), China — improved gnomon, armillary sphere, clepsydra[disambiguation needed], and sighting tube
542. Murasaki Shikibu, (c. 973–1025), Japan — novel, psychological novel
543. Pyotr Shilovsky, (1871 – after 1924), Russia/United Kingdom — gyrocar
544. Fathullah Shirazi, (c. 1582), Mughal India — autocannon, multi-barrel gun
545. William Bradford Shockley, (1910–1989), U.S. — co-inventor of transistor
546. Henry Shrapnel, (1761–1842), England — Shrapnel shell ammunition
547.
Sheikh Muszaphar Shukor, (b. 1972), Malaysia — cell growth in outer
space, crystallization of proteins and microbes in space
548.
Vladimir Shukhov, (1853–1939), Russia — thermal cracking (Shukhov
cracking process), thin-shell structure, tensile structure, hyperboloid
structure, gridshell, modern oil pipeline, cylindric oil depot
549. Augustus Siebe, (1788–1872), Germany/England — Inventor of the standard diving dress
550. Werner von Siemens, (1816–1892), Germany — an electromechanical "dynamic"
551. Sir William Siemens, (1823–1883), Germany — regenerative furnace
552. Al-Sijzi, (c. 945–1020), Persia/Iran — heliocentric astrolabe
553.
Igor Sikorsky, (1889–1972), Russia/U.S. — first four-engine fixed-wing
aircraft (Russky Vityaz), first airliner and purpose-designed bomber
(Ilya Muromets), modern helicopter, Sikorsky-series helicopters
554. Kia Silverbrook, (1958-), Australia — Memjet printer, world's most prolific inventor
555. Vladimir Simonov, (born 1935), Russia — APS Underwater Assault Rifle, SPP-1 underwater pistol
556. Charles Simonyi, (1948–), Hungary — Hungarian notation
557.
Ibn Sina (Avicenna), (973–1037), Persia/Iran — steam distillation,
essential oil, pharmacopoeia, clinical pharmacology, clinical trial,
randomized controlled trial, quarantine, cancer surgery, cancer therapy,
pharmacotherapy, phytotherapy, Hindiba, Taxus baccata L, calcium
channel blocker
558. Isaac Singer, (1811–1875), U.S. — sewing machine
559. Nikolay Slavyanov, (1854–1897), Russia — shielded metal arc welding
560. Alexander Smakula, (1900–1983), Ukraine/Russia/U.S. — anti-reflective coating
561. Yefim Smolin, Russia — table-glass (stakan granyonyi)
562. Igor Spassky, (1926–), Russia — Sea Launch platform
563. Elmer Ambrose Sperry, (1860–1930), U.S. — gyroscope-guided automatic pilot
564. Ladislas Starevich, (1882–1965), Russia/France — puppet animation, live-action/animated film
565.
Boris Stechkin, (1891–1969), Russia — co-developer of Sikorsky Ilya
Muromets and Tsar Tank, developer of Soviet heat and aircraft engines
566. George Stephenson, (1781–1848), England — steam railway
567. Simon Stevin, (1548–1620), Netherlands — land yacht
568. Reverend Dr Robert Stirling (1790–1878), Scotland — Stirling engine
569. Aurel Stodola, (1859–1942), Slovakia — gas turbines
570. Aleksandr Stoletov, (1839–1896), Russia — first solar cell based on the outer photoelectric effect
571. Levi Strauss, (1829–1902), U.S. — blue jeans
572. John Stringfellow, (1799–1883), England — airplane
573. Almon Strowger, (1839–1902), U.S. — automatic telephone exchange
574. Su Song, (1020–1101), China — first chain drive
575. Pavel Sukhoi, (1895–1975), Russia — Su-series fighter aircraft
576. Simon Sunatori, (1959–), Canada — inventor of MagneScribe and Magic Spicer
577. Sushruta, (600 BC), Vedic India — inventor of Platic Surgery, Cataract Surgery, Rhinoplasty
578. Joseph Swan, (1828–1914), England — Incandescent light bulb
579. Percy Spencer, (1894–1970), U.S. — microwave oven
580. Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi (Azophi), (903–986), Persia/Iran — timekeeping astrolabe, navigational astrolabe, surveying astrolabe
581. Robert Swanson, (1905–1994), Canada - Invented and developed the first multi-chime air horn for use with diesel locomotives
582. Andrei Sychra, (1773-76 – 1850), Lithuania/Russia, Czech descent - Russian seven-string guitar
583. Vladimir Syromyatnikov, (1933–2006), Russia - Androgynous Peripheral Attach System and other spacecraft docking mechanisms
584.
Leó Szilárd, (1898–1964), Hungary/U.S. — Co-developed the atomic bomb,
patented the nuclear reactor, catalyst of the Manhattan Project
585. T
586. Salih Tahtawi, (fl.1659–1660), Mughal India — seamless globe and celestial globe
587. Igor Tamm, (1895–1971), Russia — co-developer of tokamak
588. Taqi al-Din, (1526–1585), Syria/Egypt/Turkey — steam turbine, six-cylinder 'Monobloc' suction pump, framed sextant
589. Mardi bin Ali al-Tarsusi, (c. 1187), Middle East — counterweight trebuchet, mangonel
590. Bernard Tellegen, (1900–1990), Netherlands — pentode
591. Edward Teller, (1908–2003), Hungary — hydrogen bomb
592.
Nikola Tesla, (1856–1943), Croatian Serb, citizenshipAustrian Empire
(pre-1891), American (post-1891) — Tesla Coil, induction motor, wireless
communication
593. Léon Theremin, (1896–1993), Russia — theremin,
interlace, burglar alarm, terpsitone, Rhythmicon (first drum machine),
The Thing (listening device)
594. Charles Xavier Thomas de Colmar, (1785–1870), France — Arithmometer
595. Eric Tigerstedt, (1887–1925), Finland — triode vacuum tube
596. Kalman Tihanyi, (1897–1947), Hungary — co-inventor of cathode ray tube and iconoscope
597.
Mikhail Tikhonravov, (1900–1974), Russia — co-developer of Sputnik 1
(the first artificial satellite) together with Korolyov and Keldysh,
designer of further Sputniks
598. Gavriil Adrianovich Tikhov, (1875–1960), Russia — feathering spectrograph
599. Benjamin Chew Tilghman, (1821–1897), U.S. — sandblasting
600. Tipu Sultan, (1750–1799), India — iron-cased rocket
601. Fedor Tokarev, (1871–1968), Russia — TT-33 semiautomatic handgun and SVT-40 self-loading rifle
602. Evangelista Torricelli, (1608–1647), Italy — barometer
603. Alfred Traeger, (1895–1980), Australia — the pedal radio
604. Richard Trevithick, (1771–1833), England — high-pressure steam engine, first full-scale steam locomotive
605. Franc Trkman, (1903–1978), Slovenia — electrical switches, accessories for opening windows
606. Yuri Trutnev, (1927–), Russia — co-developer of the Tsar Bomb
607. Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, (1857–1935), Russia — spaceflight
608.
Mikhail Tsvet, (1872–1919), Russia — chromatography (specifically
adsorption chromatography, the first chromatography method)
609. Ibn Tufail, (c. 1105–1185), Islamic Spain — philosophical novel
610. Alexei Tupolev, (1925–2001), Russia — the Tupolev Tu-144 (first supersonic passenger jet)
611.
Andrei Tupolev, (1888–1972), Russia — turboprop powered long-range
airliner (Tupolev Tu-114), turboprop strategic bomber (Tupolev Tu-95)
612. Nasīr al-Dīn al-Tūsī, (1201–1274), Persia/Iran — observatory, research institute
613. Sharaf al-Dīn al-Tūsī, (1135–1213), Persia/Iran — linear astrolabe
614. U
615. Lewis Urry, (1927–2004), Canada — long-lasting alkaline battery
616. Vladimir Utkin, (1923–2000), Russia — railcar-launched ICBM (RT-23 Molodets)
617. V
618. Vladimir Sergeyevich Vakhmistrov, (1897–1972), Russia — first bomber with a parasite aircraft (Zveno project)
619. Theophilus Van Kannel, (1841–1919), United States — revolving door (1888)
620. Viktor Vasnetsov, (1848–1926), Russia — budenovka military hat
621. Vladimir Veksler, (1907–1966), Russia — synchrophasotron, co-inventor of synchrotron
622. John Venn, (1834–1923), England - Venn diagram (1881)
623. Pierre Vernier, (1580–1637), France - vernier scale (1631)
624. Dmitry Vinogradov, (c.1720–5 - 1758), Russia — original Russian hard-paste porcelain (together with Mikhail Lomonosov)
625. Louis R. Vitullo, (1924?–2006), United States — developed the first sexual assault evidence kit
626. Alessandro Volta, (1745–1827), Italy — battery
627. Faust Vrančić, (1551–1617), Croatia — parachute
628.
Traian Vuia, (1872–1950), Romania — designed, built, and tested one of
the earlier aircraft in 1906. Vuia reportedly flew to a height of 1
Meter and was able to stay aloft for 20 Meters.
629. Ivan Vyrodkov, (? – 1563-64), Russia — battery tower
630. W
631.
Paul Walden, (1863–1957), Latvia/Russia/Germany — Walden inversion,
Ethylammonium nitrate (the first room temperature ionic liquid)
632. Barnes Wallis, (1887–1979), England — bouncing bomb
633. Robert Watson-Watt, (1892–1973), Scotland — microwave radar
634. James Watt, (1736–1819), Scotland — improved Steam engine
635. Thomas Wedgwood, (1771–1805), England — first (not permanent) photograph
636. Jonas Wenström, (1855–1893), Sweden — three-phase electrical power
637. George Westinghouse, (1846–1914), U.S. — Air brake (rail)
638. Charles Wheatstone, (1802–1875), England — concertina, stereoscope, microphone, Playfair cipher
639. Eli Whitney, (1765–1825), U.S. — the cotton gin
640. Frank Whittle, (1907–1996), England — co-inventor of the jet engine
641. Otto Wichterle, (1913–1989), Czechoslovakia — invented modern contact lenses
642. Paul Winchell, (1922–2005), U.S. — the artificial heart
A. Baldwin Wood, (1879–1956), U.S. — high volume pump
643. Granville Woods, (1856–1910), U.S. — the Synchronous Multiplex Railway Telegraph
644. Wright brothers, Orville (1871–1948) and Wilbur (1867–1912) — U.S. — powered airplane
645. Arthur Wynne, (1862–1945), England — creator of crossword puzzle
646. Y
647. Pavel Yablochkov, (1847–1894), Russia — Yablochkov candle (first commercially viable electric carbon arc lamp)
648. Hidetsugu Yagi, (1886–1976), Japan — Yagi antenna
649. Alexander Yakovlev, (1906–1989), Russia — Yak-series aircraft, including Yakovlev Yak-40 (the first regional jet)
650. Khalid ibn Yazid, (635-704), Syria/Egypt — potassium nitrate
651. Yi Xing, (683-727), China — astronomical clock
652. Gazi Yasargil, (1925- ), Turkey — Microneurosurgery
653. Arthur M. Young, (1905–1995), U.S. — the Bell Helicopter
654. Vladimir Yourkevitch, (1885–1964), Russia/France/U.S. — modern ship hull design
655. Sergei Yudin, (1891–1954), Russia — cadaveric blood transfusion and other medical operations
656. Muhammad Yunus, (b. 1940), Bangladesh — microcredit, microfinance
657. Abu Yaqub Yusuf, (c. 1274), Morocco/Spain — siege cannon
658. Linus Yale, Jr., (1821–1868), U.S. — cylinder lock
659. Linus Yale, Sr., (1797–1858), U.S. — pin tumbler lock
660. Z
661.
Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi (Abulcasis), (936–1013), Islamic Spain — catgut
surgical suture, various surgical instruments and dental devices
662. Alexander Zalmanov, (1875–1965), Russia — turpentine bath
663. Ludwik Łazarz Zamenhof, (1859–1917) Russia/Poland — Esperanto
664. Abū Ishāq Ibrāhīm al-Zarqālī (Arzachel), (1028–1087), Islamic Spain — almanac, equatorium, universal astrolabe
665. Yevgeny Zavoisky, (1907–1976), Russia — EPR spectroscopy, co-developer of NMR spectroscopy
666. Nikolay Zelinsky, (1861–1953), Russia — the first effective filtering coal gas mask in the world
667. Zhang Heng, (78–139), China — invented the first hydraulic-powered armillary sphere
668. Zheng He, (1371–1433), China — treasure ship
669. Nikolai Zhukovsky, (1847–1921), Russia — an early wind tunnel, co-developer of the Tsar Tank
670.
Ziryab, (789—857), Iraq/Syria/Tunisia/Spain — bangs, beauty parlour,
cosmetology school, chemical depilatory, toothpaste, under-arm
deodorant, three-course meal
671. Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar), (1091–1161),
Islamic Spain — general anaesthesia, general anaesthetic, oral
anesthesia, inhalational anaesthetic, narcotic-soaked sponge,
tracheotomy, parasitology, pharmacopoeia
672. Konrad Zuse, (22 June 1910–18 December 1995), Germany — invented the first Computer (Z1, Z2, Z3, Z4)
673. Vasily Zvyozdochkin, (1876–1956), Russia — matryoshka doll (together with Sergey Malyutin)
674. Vladimir Zworykin, (1889–1982), Russia/U.S. — Iconoscope, kinescope.

_________________
الأندلس ( الفردوس المفقود )
{{ ابك مثل النساء ملكا مضاعا لم تحافظ عليه مثل الرجال }}
في 2 يناير 1492 م سقطت مدينة "غرنـــــاطة" آخر مدن الأندلس المسلمة، ورفع العلم الصليبي على قصر الحمراء فيها!
اللهم أغفر للمؤمنين والمؤمنات والمسلمين والمسلمات الأحياء منهم والأموات
[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]
[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]
اللهم ان لك صفوة تدخلهم الجنة من غير حساب ولا عقاب
فاجعلني و قارئ الموضوع منهم

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